A. Harm to domestic industry caused by subsidized imports from another country. 187 See ”EC Anti-Dumping Rights on Certain Flat-rolled or non-alloy indian steel products,” WT/DS/313/2 (October 27, 2004). 1 China was one of the original 23 parts of the GATT, but never participated in gatt activities after the Communist Revolution of 1949. In March 1950, the former Chinese government, then based in Taiwan, withdrew China from the GATT, but the withdrawal was never recognized by Beijing. In 1986, China requested the restoration of its initial contractor status to the GATT. China amended its application for membership after the creation of the WTO. The context and analysis of related legal issues refer to Qin, Ya, ”China and GATT – Accession Instead of Resumption,” 27(2) J. World Trade 77-98 (April 1993) Google Scholar. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for regulating international trade between nations.
The WTO was officially opened on 1 January 1995, as part of the 123-nation Marrakesh Agreement signed on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which began in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.   105 ”United States – Preliminary Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Determinations on Coated Free Sheet Paper from China, Request for Consultations by China,” WT/DS368/1 (September 18, 2007). 42 For example, the EU cited Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Albania and Moldova as a non-market economy in Regulation (EC) 2238/2000 of the Council of 9 October 2000 amending Regulation (EC) 384/96 of the Defence Council against dumping imports from non-Eu Community countries. In January 19, for example, India imposed anti-dumping duties on 99 Chinese products, including chemicals and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, fibre and wires, rubber and steel products. Similarly, in April`19, it imposed an anti-dumping duty on solar cell components from China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Thailand. 46 For the period 1995-2006, WTO members adopted a total of 1941 anti-dumping measures, of which 375, or nearly 20%, were against Chinese products, followed by a distant second of 136 against South Korea. Source: WTO anti-dumping statistics, available at . 15 All texts of WTO agreements are available under . Tariffs have been reduced from an average of 71% in 1993 to a current average of 35%. However, the report notes that the tariff structure remains complex and that escalation remains significant in several sectors, including paper and paper products, printing and publishing, wood and wood products, and food, beverages and tobacco. In general, related tariffs remain significantly higher than applied rates, particularly for agricultural products.
In June 2012[Update], the future of the Doha Round remained uncertain: the work programme lists 21 themes in which the initial deadline of 1 January 2005 has not been set and the cycle remains incomplete.  The conflict between free trade in industrial products and services, but the maintenance of protectionism in agricultural subsidies to domestic agricultural sectors (demanded by industrialized countries) and the justification for fair trade in agricultural products (demanded by developing countries) remain the main obstacles. This impasse has made it impossible to organise new WTO negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round. As a result, bilateral free trade agreements between governments are multiplying. [update] from July 2012, several negotiating groups were set up in the WTO system for the current stalemate in agricultural trade negotiations.  In accordance with the obligations under the Textile and Clothing Agreement (ATC) to gradually integrate this sector into the 1994 GATT, in 1995 the Indian government placed cotton and wool yarns, discontinuous polyester fibres and 20 other industrial fabrics on the list of freely identifiable products.